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Where it fits into the curriculum

Topics:  This lesson is useful for teaching about the struggle by African-Americans for equal rights in the workplace. It highlights the important contributions of African-American workers in the operation and growth of the railroad industry.
Time period:  19th and 20th centuries
Relevant United States History Standards
Grades K-4
Topic One: Living and Working Together in Families and Communities, Now and Long Ago
Standard 2A: The student understands the history of his or her local community..
Topic Two: The History of the Students' Own State or Region 
Standard 3D: The student understands the interactions among all these groups throughout the history of his or her state.
Standard 3E: The student understands the ideas that were significant in the development of the state and that helped to forge its unique identity.
Grades 5-12
Era 4: Expansion and Reform (1801-1861)
STANDARD 2: How the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions.
Standard 2A: The student understands how the factory system and the transportation and market revolutions shaped regional patterns of economic development. 
Relevant Maryland Voluntary State Curriculum Standards for Social Studies
Grade 3
Standard 3.0 Geography: Students will use geographic concepts and processes to understand location and its relationship to human activities.
3.0A. Using Geographic Tools
Indicator 1. Use geographic tools to locate and construct meaning about places on Earth
3.0C. Movement of People, Goods and Ideas
Indicator 1. Describe how transportation and communication networks link places through the movement of people, goods, and ideas
Standard 5.0 History: Students will use historical thinking skills to understand how individuals and events have changed society over time.
5.0A. Individuals and Societies Change Over Time
Indicator 1. Examine differences between past and present time
Indicator 2. Investigate how people lived in the past using a variety of primary and secondary sources
Grade 4
Standard 5.0 History: Students will examine significant ideas, beliefs, and themes; organize patterns and events; and analyze how individuals and societies have changed over time in Maryland and the United States.
5.0C. Conflict between Ideas and Institutions
Indicator 2. Explain the political, cultural, economic and social changes in Maryland during the 1800s
Grades 3-5
Standard 6.0 Social Studies Skills and Processes: Students shall use reading, writing, and thinking processes and skills to gain knowledge and understanding of political, historical, and current events using chronological and spatial thinking, economic reasoning, and historical interpretation, by framing and evaluating questions from primary and secondary sources.
6.0A. Read to Learn and Construct Meaning about Social Studies
Indicator 1. Use appropriate strategies and opportunities to increase understandings of social studies vocabulary
Indicator 2. Use strategies to prepare for reading (before reading)
Indicator 3. Use strategies to monitor understanding and derive meaning from text and portions of text (during reading)
Indicator 4. Use strategies to demonstrate understanding of the text (after reading)
6.0B. Write to Learn and Communicate Social Studies Understandings
Indicator 1. Use informal writing strategies, such as journal writing, note taking, quick writes, and graphic organizers to clarify, organize, remember and/or express new understandings
Indicator 2. Use formal writing, such as multi-paragraph essays, historical investigations, research reports, letters and summaries to inform
6.0C. Ask Social Studies Questions
Indicator 1. Identify a topic that requires further study
Indicator 2. Identify a problem/situation that requires further study
6.0D. Acquire Social Studies Information
1. Identify primary and secondary sources of information that relate to the topic/situation/problem being studied
2. Engage in field work that relates to the topic/ situation/ problem being studied
6.0E. Organize Social Studies Information
1. Organize information from non-print sources
2. Organize information from print sources
6.0F. Analyze Social Studies Information
1. Interpret information from primary and secondary sources
2. Evaluate information from a variety of sources
3. Synthesize information from a variety of sources
6.0G. Answer Social Studies Questions
1. Describe how the country has changed over time and how people have contributed to its change, drawing from maps, photographs, newspapers, and other sources
Objectives for students
  1. Identify the obstacles faced by African-Americans seeking employment in the railroad industry during the 19th and early 20th centuries.
  2. Describe the contributions to the railroad industry made by African-Americans.
  3. Describe the efforts made by African-American railroad workers to overcome the discrimination they experienced.
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